Soal TOEFL Conditional Sentence dan Pembahasannya

Pola Soal Conditional Sentence dalam Tes TOEFL

Conditional sentence atau if clause adalah suatu kalimat majemuk (complete sentence) yang menyatakan suatu akibat yang diharapkan dari suatu kondisi. Kondisi ini dinyatakan di dalam sebuah klausa yang dimulai dengan if dan akibatnya dinyatakan di dalam induk kalimat (main clause).

Bentuk ini dapat saja Anda temukan dalam soal bagian Structure and Written Expression ketika mengikuti tes TOEFL. Oleh karena ini, pelajari pola-polanya dengan baik agar Anda memahami dengan benar bagaimana bentuk kalimat conditional sentence.

Kalimat conditional ada tiga tipe, yaitu:

Tipe I: Subject 1 + modal + V1 + complement + if + Subject 2 + Verb1 + complement

  • I will go if he gives me the money.
  • He can pass the exam if he studies hard.
Tipe I disebut future conditional sentence.

Tipe II : Subject 1 + past modal + V1 + complement + if + Subject 2 + Verb2 + complement

 - I would go if he gave me the money.
   I don’t go because he doesn’t give me the money.
Tipe II disebut present conditional sentence.

Tipe III : Subject 1 + past modal + have + V3 + complement + if + Subject 2 + had + Verb3 + complement

I would have gone if he had given me the money.
  I didn’t go because he didn’t give me the money.

Tipe III disebut past conditional sentence.

Keterangan:
  • Pada future conditional sentence, main clause-nya menggunakan will, can, must, may, to be going to, have to, expect to ditambah kata kerja bentuk pertama (verb1), sedangkan kata kerja pada conditional clause-nya dalam bentuk present tense.
  • Pada present conditional sentence, main clause-nya menggunakan would, could, might, was going to, expected to ditambah kata kerja bentuk pertama (verb1), sedangkan kata kerja pada conditional clause-nya dalam bentuk past present tense.
  • If were rich, I would buy a new car.
  • Were I rich, I would buy a new car.
  • If I had studied hard, I would have passed the exam.
  • Had I studied hard, I would have passed the exam.
Contoh pada kalimat negatif:
- I won’t pass the exam if I don’t study hard.
  I won’t pass the exam unless I study hard.
  Keterangan: unless = if not

Contoh Soal TOEFL Conditional Sentence dan Pembahasannya


1. If the students _____ late to submit the scholarship application to the board, they will not be listed as candidates.
    A. be
    B. are
    C. were
    D. have

Jawaban : B
Keyword :will not be listed
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini merupakan kalimat conditional atau pengandaian tipe 1 karena ada kata if dan will + V1. Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah are karena tense-nya present.

2. If your brother ______ here, he ______ us with this works.
    A. is - would help
    B. was - will help
    C. were - will help
    D. were - would help

Jawaban : D
Keyword :If
Pembahasan : Pasangan yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat tersebut adalah pilihan D karena sesuai dengan pola pengandaian tipe 2.

3. Aldo : Did you attend the meeting last Monday?
    Fery : I would if I had been invited.
    The underlined utterance means ______.
    A. Fery didn’t attend the meeting
    B. Fery plans to attend the meeting
    C. Fery knew about the meeting and he attended the meeting
    D. Fery was not invited to the meeting but he came

Jawaban : A
Keyword :I would if I had been invited
Pembahasan : Kalimat pada jawaban berarti “Saya mungkin akan datang jika diundang.” Jadi Fery tidak datang pada pertemuan itu (Fery didn’t attend the meeting).

4. You _____ the job if you were not late to the interview.
    A. would get
    B. would be gotten
    C. would have gotten
    D. would have been gotten

Jawaban : A
Keyword :were not late
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah kalimat pengandaian tipe 2. Polanya adalah If S + V2, S + would + V1.

5. We would get the tickets, ______
    A. Weren’t there so much rush at the cinema
    B. Because there were so much rush at the cinema
    C. There were not so much rush at the cinema
    D. Although there were so much rush at the cinema

Jawaban : D
Keyword :would get
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah kalimat pengandaian tipe 2. Polanya adalah If S + V2, S + would + V1.

6. Fortunately you assisted to push the car. If you hadn’t helped him, he ______ with you.
    A. will get angry
    B. would have gotten angry
    C. should angry
    D. would get angry

Jawaban : B
Keyword :hadn’t helped
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah kalimat pengandaian tipe 3. Polanya adalah If S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3.

7. If Rani were not busy at the moment, she would go out with me, said Maria.
    From Maria’s utterance we know that Rani ______ with her.
    A. goes
    B. went
    C. didn’t go
    D. doesn’t go

Jawaban : D
Keyword :would go
Pembahasan : Pernyataan tipe 2 jika dijadikan kenyataan berubah menjadi kalimat dengan menggunakan bentuk present tense, dan jika kalimatnya positif berubah menjadi negatif dan sebaliknya.

8. ______ her shyness, she would have become a great teacher.
    A. She had overcome
    B. If had she overcome
    C. If she overcame
    D. If she would overcome

Jawaban : B
Keyword :would have become
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah pengandaian tipe 3. Polanya adalah If S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3.

9. If we don’t hurry, the meeting ______ by the time we get there.
    A. would have started
    B. will have started
    C. will be started
    D. will start

Jawaban : D
Keyword :don’t hurry
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah pengandaian tipe 1. Polanya adalah If + S + V1, S + will + V1.

10. If I had a lot of time, I would study German.
    From this sentence we know that _____.
    A. I have a lot of time, so I study German
    B. I studied German because I had a lot of time
    C. I want to study German because I have a lot of time
    D. I would like to study German, but I don’t have much time

Jawaban : D
Keyword :If I had a lot of time, I would study German
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah kalimat pengandaian tipe 2, yang subjeknya tidak mempunyai kemungkinan untuk mencapai tujuan pengandaiannya. Jadi kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa I would like to study German, but I don’t have much time.

11. If studied more, he would have been able to pass the exam.

Jawaban : A
Keyword :If studied
Pembahasan : Kalimat dengan if di sini belum mempunyai subjek. Selain itu dari bentuknya kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa ini adalah pengandaian tipe 3. Polanya adalah If S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3. Jadi studied seharusnya diganti he had studied.

12. If the United States had not entered the Second World War, probably the 1940 unemployment rate of 14% would rise still further.

Jawaban : D
Keyword :had not entered
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini adalah pengandaian tipe 3. Polanya adalah If S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3. Jadi would rise seharusnya diganti would have risen.

13. George would certainly have attended the proceedings were he not had a flat tire.

Jawaban : C
Keyword :would certainly have attended
Pembahasan : Karena kalimat ini merupakan pengandaian tipe 3 dengan menghilangkan if, maka penggunaan were tidak tepat. Seharusnya digunakan had.

14. Physical fitness exercises can cause injuries if the participants do not careful.

Jawaban : D
Keyword :careful
Pembahasan : Karena careful bukan kata kerja, maka auxiliary yang digunakan adalah are.

15. If the oxygen supply in the atmosphere was not replenished by plants, it would soon be exhausted.

Jawaban : B
Keyword :If
Pembahasan : Dalam conditional tidak boleh diggunakan auxiliary “was” tetapi diganti dengan were.

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