Soal TOEFL Derivative dan Pembahasannya

Pola Soal Derivates dalam Tes TOEFL

Ketika Anda menemukan bentuk derivative dalam soal bagian Structure and Written Expression pada tes TOEFL, perhatikan pola pembentukannya.
Derivative adalah kata yang berasal dari kata lain/kata dasar dengan penambahan imbuhan (affix).

Pembentukan kata benda (noun formation)

  1. -age : breakage, sabotage
  2. -an,-ian : librarian, mathematician
  3. -ance, -ence : assistance, confidence
  4. -dom : kingdom, freedom
  5. -ery : bakery, fishery
  6. -er : teacher, runner
  7. -hood : childhood, brotherhood
  8. -ics : economics, athletics
  9. -ist : guitarist, dramatist
  10. -ion, tion : information, relation
  11. -logy : biology, sociology
  12. -ment : development, government
  13. -ness : silliness, happiness
  14. -or : governor, operator
  15. -ory : laboratory, observatory
  16. -ship : friendship, hardship

Pembentukan kata sifat (adjective formation)

  1. -able, -ible : fashionable, responsible
  2. -al : magical, survival
  3. -ant, -ent : significant, different
  4. -ful : peaceful, handful
  5. -ic : poetic, romantic
  6. -ish : childish, girlish
  7. -ive : active, constructive
  8. -less : hopeless, treeless
  9. -like : childlike, godlike
  10. -ly : weekly, yearly
  11. -ous : poisonous, dangerous
  12. –y : dusty, bushy

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Pembentukan kata kerja (verb formation)

  1. –ate : stimulate, gyrate
  2. -en : darken, widen
  3. -ef, -ify : beautiful, terrify
  4. -ise, -ize : computerize, dramatize
  5. en- : endanger, enlarge

 

Pembentukan kata keterangan (adverb formation)

  1. -ly : beautifully, happily
  2. -ward : backward, eastward
  3. -wise : crosswise, clockwise

 

Contoh Soal TOEFL Derivative dan Pembahasannya


1. This flower can be _____ grouped into type depending upon how often they bloom.
    A. convenient
    B. convenience
    C. conveniently
    D. conveniences

Jawaban : C
Key word : can be _____ grouped
Pembahasan : Kalimat ini memerlukan sebuah adverb karena verb (grouped) hanya dapat diawali/diikuti dengan adverb.

2. A list of key beliefs of world class performers is the important material in coaching mental ______.
    A. tough
    B. toughful
    C. toughment
    D. toughness

Jawaban : D
Key word : in coaching mental
Pembahasan : Karena mental merupakan adjective (kata sifat) maka dibutuhkan noun yaitu toughness. Fungsi adjective adalah menerangkan noun dan letaknya pasti sebelum noun (kata benda).

3. The little girl is taking care of the puppy with ______.
    A. patient
    B. patience
    C. patiently
    D. patients

Jawaban : B
Key word : with
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat ini ada paralelisme penggunaan kata benda.

4. _____ angles of any triangle always add up to 180 degrees.
    A. If three
    B. The three
    C. Three of
    D. Three are

Jawaban : B
Key word : angles of any triangle
Pembahasan : Karena dalam soal sudah ada predikat dan sudah merupakan fakta bahwa segitiga mempunyai 3 sisi, jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah the three.

5. The bodies of living creatures are organized into many different systems, each of which has _____ function.
    A. Certainly
    B. A certain
    C. It is certainly
    D. To be certain

Jawaban : B
Key word : function
Pembahasan : Karena menerangkan kata benda function, maka kata yang digunakan adalah adjective “certain”.

6. _____, Carl Sandburg is also well-known for his multi volume biography of Lincoln.
    A. An eminent American poet
    B. He is an eminent American poet
    C. An eminent American poet who is
    D. Despite an eminent American poet

Jawaban : A
Key word : Carl Sandburg
Pembahasan : Karena menerangkan Carl Sandburg, maka jawaban yang paling tepat adalah An eminent American poet.

7. The Hawthorne studies, _____ the monotonous working conditions of factory personnel, were a major contribution to industrial psychology.
    A. In which the investigation of
    B. Were they investigated
    C. Which were investigation
    D. An investigation of

Jawaban : C
Key word : studies
Pembahasan : Kalimat yang dibutuhkan berfungsi sebagai appositive yang menerangkan studies (jamak).

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8. Vaporization in connection with general _____ has a marked effect on long-term climate.
    A. Atmospheric conditions that
    B. Conditions are atmospheric
    C. Are atmospheric conditions
    D. Atmospheric conditions

Jawaban : D
Key word : with general; has
Pembahasan : Karena dalam soal sudah ada predikatnya maka isiannya berupa kata benda.

9. _____ discussion of group personality would be complete without a consideration of national character.
    A. None
    B. Not
    C. No
    D. Nothing

Jawaban : C
Key word : without
Pembahasan : No di sini berfungsi sebagai adjective yang menerangkan discussion.

10. The javelin used in competition must be between 260 and 270 centimeters _____.
      A. In length
      B. It is long
      C. Whose length
      D. Lengthily

Jawaban : A
Key word : 260 and 270 centimeters
Pembahasan : Karena menerangkan panjang, maka jawaban yang paling sesuai adalah in length.

11. The statement will be spoken just one time; therefore, you must listen very careful in order to understand what the speaker has said.

Jawaban : B
Key word : listen
Pembahasan : Karena menerangkan verb yaitu listen, maka harus menggunakan adverb of manner yaitu carefully.

12. Quality control studies show that employees work the most efficient when they are involved in the total operation rather than in only one part of it.

Jawaban : A
Key word : work
Pembahasan : Karena menerangkan kata kerja work maka dibutuhkan adverb yaitu efficiently.

13. Although the “Lake Poets” Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southney were friends, they did not really form a group since Southney’s style differed wide from that of the other two.

Jawaban : B
Key word : since
Pembahasan : Karena menggunakan kata penghubung since (karena) dan menerangkan kata kerja differed maka dibutuhkan adverb yaitu widely.

14. Nutritionists recommend that foods from each of the four basic groups are eaten on a regularly daily basis.

Jawaban : D
Key word : a regularly daily basis
Pembahasan : Karena menerangkan noun “daily basis” maka seharusnya menggunakan adjective yaitu regular.

15. Clare Boothe Luce wrote and productioned her first play while she was in high school.

Jawaban : B
Key word : wrote; productioned
Pembahasan : Penggunaan kata productioned sebagai kata kerja tidak tepat, kata yang tepat seharusnya produced.